Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) considers someone to be employed 밤 알바 full-time when he or she works, on average, 30 hours per week, or 130 hours per month. To determine whether someone is full-time or part-time, Current Population Survey (CPS) surveyors ask how many hours the individual typically works across jobs. Someone who is not voluntarily a full-time worker* is called a nonpart-time worker* In this paper, these concepts of part-time refer specifically to the persons usual hours, but are most commonly presented on the basis of how many hours the individual actually worked in the week referenced by the survey, regardless of their normal full- or part-time status.
Involuntary part-time workers desire full-time employment, but they are working part-time due to weak business conditions or because they have found part-time jobs alone.3 In 2016, less than a fifth of part-time workers (4.7 million) fell into this part-time category, representing approximately 3.1% of all workers. As is the case for women, many men who work part time are underemployed, stuck with jobs that do not offer wages, benefits, or opportunities comparable with what is available in full-time work. By contrast, just one-third of all full-time women workers are employed in these same industries, suggesting these jobs are not a preferred career choice.
While men face many of the same obstacles women do–poor job choices, lower wages, limited benefits–they generally take these jobs because there is no available full-time work. Unfortunately, choosing to work part-time comes with significant costs to women, mostly in the form of lower wages, a lack of health care and retirement benefits, reduced opportunities for promotion, and restricted access to higher-paying industries.
For example, according to data from the Economic Policy Institute, Washington, women who work part-time in administrative support and clerical jobs make 16.5% less per hour than their full-time peers. The more dramatic shift regarding part-time, volunteer work has been a growing share of those workers claiming to have their hours count as full-time, even if they are working less than 35 hours a week, rising by 7 points to 18%. Now, many companies are moving part-timers into full-time jobs, even though that means paying health benefits, because turnover is so high and they need to attract and keep workers, said Adam Roston, chief executive of BlueCrew, an online staffing company serving warehouses and hospitality.
In addition, the number of part-timers involuntarily–people holding down a part-time job because they cannot find a full-time position–has been rising for years, although it is still less than one-third of all part-timers. There has been a boom of a related kind of worker, the temp, who also has fewer than full-time shares of the companies that hire them.
Employers might find that increased access to part-time jobs enhances their ability to hire and retain workers in periods of lower unemployment, making it a winning strategy for employees and employers alike. During times of high demand, like during the Christmas holidays for retailers, part-timers can be called on to work longer shifts, or in full-time positions, boosting their earnings. Part-timers may also cover for employees on sick leave ormaternity leave, and part-timers with longer tenures can cover shifts that are not covered by full-time employees.
Continuing full-time allows you to keep your job and associated pay and benefits, as well as make progress on your studies. Going to graduate school simultaneously with work may foster connections between theory and practice.
It is best to begin talking to your supervisor early on about a grad study plan, as well as researching schools that offer programs that are work-friendly (evening or weekend classes, online courses or components, and part-time options). To help prevent uneven workloads, strategize to facilitate the transfer of tasks to other employees, and invest in extra training to strengthen the institutional knowledge of the part-timer. Bringing others into better project management, maximizing the predictability of the job, and scheduling coverage (again, with appropriately substituted colleagues) can provide predictable part-time work.
Part-time team managers were best placed to reduce workloads, as they could reassign smaller amounts of relevant work to subordinates (by arrangement)–but part-time non-managers could also trade off and divide tasks among peers. This joint shaping of the part-timers job avoided job aggravation suffered by part-timers trying to shape their jobs on an individual basis – but most part-timers did not have the bargaining power to redesign the teams working practices either when transitioning to part-time status or when hiring. Interestingly, each of the successful part-timers in our research had a few tricks to remain visible within their organizations, despite many hours spent outside of the workplace.
Given school schedules, certain states restrictions on hours for those under 18, and young adults shifting work-leisure preferences,6 it is not surprising that many employed 16- and 17-year-olds are working part-time. Already nearly 1 in 5 professionals and managers in the UK are working part time, while more than 2 in 5 work part time in the Netherlands: this includes parents and carers, as well as older workers, Millennials, and those with health problems.
Full-time employees might feel that they are not as involved as part-timers, or do not even know what they are working on. Most bosses and co-workers are worried about the job not getting done in a timely manner, or about someone else, who is already working at maximum capacity, having to take over an undesirable task from the part-timer. Because workers are working fewer hours per day than full-timers, they still have time to go to school, recuperate from illness, take care of family members, volunteer at worthwhile causes, or take another job to earn an extra paycheck.
Just make sure you ask about requirements in your interview process, and be clear what hours you are willing to work. You might like the work and feel like staying engaged in it is part of your overall career trajectory beyond just a bachelors degree.